Introduction, Importance in Agriculture. Seed Physiology, Seed structures, Morphological,physiological and biochemical changes during seed development, Physiological maturity-Morphological and physiological changes associated with physiological maturity in crop, Harvestable maturity, Seed viability and vigour, Factors affecting seed viability and vigour. Methods of testing seed viability and vigour, Germination, Utilization of seed reserves during seed germination, Morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed germination, Factors affecting seed germination. Growth and Development, Definition, Determinate and Indeterminate growth, Monocarpic and Polycarpic species with examples. Measurement of growth, Growth analysis Growth characteristics, Definitions and mathematical formulae. Crop Water Relations, Physiological importance of water to plants, Water potential and its components, measurement of water status in plants. Transpiration, significance, Transpiration in relation to crop productivity, Water Use Efficiency, WUE in C3, C4 and CAM plants, Factors affecting WUE. Photosynthesis, Energy synthesis, Significance of C3, C4 and CAM pathway, Relationship of Photosynthesis and crop productivity, Translocation of assimilates, Phloem loading, apoplastic and symplastic transport of assimilates, Source and sink concept, Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis and productivity, Methods of measuring photosynthesis, Photosynthetic efficiency, Dry matter partitioning, Harvest index of crops. Respiration and its significance, Brief account of Growth respiration and maintenance respiration, Alternate respiration – Salt respiration – wound respiration – measurement of respiration. Nutriophysiology – Definition – Mengel’s classification of plant nutrients – Physiology of nutrient uptake – Functions of plant nutrients – Deficience and toxicity symptoms of plant nutrients – Foliar nutrition – Hydroponics. Introduction of Photoperiodism and Vernalisation in relation to crop productivity – Photoperiodism Plant Growth Regulators – Occurrence – Biosynthesis – Mode of action of Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene. Novel plant growth regulators, Commercial application of plant growth regulators in agriculture. Senescence and abscission – Definition – Classification – Theories of mechanism and control of senescence – Physiological and biochemical changes and their significance. Post Harvest Physiology – Seed dormancy – Definition – types of seed dormancy – Advantages and disadvantages of seed dormancy – Causes and remedial measures for breaking seed dormancy, Optimum conditions of seed storage – Factors influencing seed storage (ISTA standards). Fruit ripening – Metamorphic changes – Climateric and non-climateric fruits – Hormonal regulation of fruit ripening (with ethrel, CCC, Polaris, paclobuterozole).