Ecosystem : Meaning, Abiotic & biotic components, Autotrophic Heterotrophic components, Types of Ecosystem, Energy Flow in Ecosystem, Ecological Pyramid; Pyramid of energy, number & biomass.
Bio-diversity and its Conservation : Meaning, Genetic, species & community diversity, Importance of biodiversity, Threat to biodiversity. Extinction of species, Red data book, Biodiversity in India, Endangered species in India, Indian Vultures, Hot spots, conservation of biodiversity, wildlife sanctuary, National Park, Biosphere reserve and their differences, Important National Parks & Sancturies, Biosphere reserves in India, Ramsar site, Sacred Groves, Silent valley, C-errnplasrn bank, Environmental laws, Indian forest Act.
Environmental Pollution : Pollution and its type, Air pollution : Air pollutants, photochemical, Acid rain, ozone hole, particulate matters, aerosols, prevention and control of air pollution, Noise Pollution: decibel & Hertz, effects of noise pollution, source of noise, noise intensity and different source, control of noise pollution; water pollution: sewage other wastes, industrial effeluents, Agl. discharges, thermal pollution, water pollutions, Marine pollution, Mercury Pollution, control of water pollution; soil pollution. Sources, effects, control of soil pollution; Nuclear pollution: Sources, effects & control of nuclear pollution; Bioremediation, phytoremediation, categories of phyto remediation, some technical definitions relevant to bioremediation.
Disaster and Disaster management : Natural Disaster: Earthquake, Landslide, Floods, Cyclones and their management; Tsunami, Manmade Disaster.
Water Relation : Introduction, Diffusion, Osmosis, Osmotic Potential, Water Potential, Turgor Pressure, Chemical Potential, Osmotic Relations, Endosmosis, Exo-osmosis, Role of Osmosis, Factors affecting osmotic pressure, Imbibition, Plasmolysis, Absorption of water, Active absorption and their theories, Passive absorption, Factors affecting the rate of water absorption, Ascent of sap and different theories, Loss of water, Transpiration, Difference between transpiration and evaporation, Stomata and their types, Mechanism of stomatal opening and closing, Guttation, Bleeding, Difference between transpiration & guttation.
Photosynthesis : Introduction, Photosynthetic Pigments, Photosynthesis, Light reactions, Robert Emerson’ s work and red drop, Dark reactions, Calvin Cycle, Hatch and Slack Cycle, CAM; Photorespiration, Factors affecting Photosynthesis.
Respiration : Introduction ,Types of respiration, Mechanism of respiration, Glycolysis, Anaerobic respiration, Aerobic respiration, Link, Krebs cycle, Difference between Calvin cycle and Kerbs Cycle, Phosphorylation, Electron transport system, Energy released during respiration, Efficiency of respiration, Respiratory Quotient, Difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration, Difference between respiration and photorespiration, Factors affecting respiration, Pasteur effect, Climacteric rise.
Enzymes : Meaning, Types of enzymes, Mode of Action, Classification, Nature and properties, Factors affecting Enzyme reaction.
Growth, Harmones and Growth Regulators : Growth and Development, Phases of Growth, Factors affecting growth and development, Growth Harmones and regulators : Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinin, Abscisic acid (ABA), Ethylene, Difference between growth inhibitor and growth retardant. 10. Photoperiodism and Vemalisation : Photoperiodism : Short day plants, Long day plants, Day neutral plants, Critical Period, Photoperiodic induction, Flowering stimulus, Vernalization and devemalisation.
Agricultural Entomology : An Introduction Insect-Pest, Entomology, Phyllum : Arthropoda, Insects :, Ticks/ Mites, Metamorphosis , Mouth Parts and its types , Damaging Stages, Bhopal Gas Tragedy :
Insecticides : Mode of Action of Insecticides, Insecticides and their trade names, Inorganic Compounds, Organic Compounds, Synthetic Organic Compounds, DDT Analogs , BHC/HCH, Organo-phosphorus compounds, ‘S’ — Containing Insecticides, Carbamate Insecticides. Synthetic Pyrethroids, Acaricides, Fumigants, Rodenticides, Generations of Insecticides, Insecticide Additives, Types of Formulation, Liquid Formulation/Spray, Gaseous Formulation, Calculations Regarding Formulation
Plant Protection Equipments : Dusters, Introduction, Hand-operated duster or Hand Duster, Power (operated) dusters, Sprayer, Introduction, Types of Pump, Function of nozzle, Types of nozzle, Hand Operated Sprayers, Hydraulic (Energy) Sprayers, Compression/Pneumatic/Air Sprayers, Gaseous Energy/Air Blast Sprayer, Power Sprayers, Pneumatic/ compression/Air Energy Sprayer, Gaseous Energy Sprayer, Centrifugal Energy Sprayer, Other Equipments.
Integrated Pest Management : Introduction, Harmful Effects of Pesticides, Integrated Pest Management, Cultural Measures, Mechanical and Physical Measures, Biological control Measure, Successful examples of Bilogical agents used in Pest Management, Chemical Control, Pest Surveillance, Forecasting of pest attack, Introduction of pests from one country to other,Domestic Quarantine for Pests, Varietal Control, Male sterlie Technique, Use of IGR, Pheromones, Attractants & Repellants.
Stored Grain Pests : Rice Weevil, Khapra beetle, Pulse beetle, Rice Moth, Lesser grain borer, Rust Red Flour bettle, Angoumois grain moth, Protection of Stored grain, Preventive Measures, Hygenic Measures, Physical Measures. Chemical Measures, Curative Measures, Aluminimum Phosphide. (Celephos)
Insect Pests of Some Crops : Insect pest of Paddy Crop, Rice gall Midge/Fly. Yellow stem borer, Plant Hopper, Insect-pest Management of Rice, Insect pests of Cotton. American bollworm, Spotted bollworm, IPM in Cotton, Measures for Bollworms protection, Insect pests of Sugarcane, Sugarcane Leafhopper. Sugarcane root borer, Sugarcane shoot borer, Sugarcane top borer, Gurdaspur borer, IPM in sugarcane, Insect-Pest of Pulses, Pod borer. Gram cutworm, IPM in Pulses, lnsectpests of oilseeds , White grub. Mustard Aphid, Mustard sawfly, Painted bug, IPM in Oilseed, Insect Pests of Vegetables. Fruit fly, Red pumpkin beetle, Brinjal borer. Hadda beetle, Jassids (Leaf hoppers), Tomato (wits borer, Diamond-black moth. Mustard Aphid, Painted bug. Insect Pests of fruits and Fruit trees, Mango hopper. Fruit fly, Mealybug, Fruit sucking moth, Citrus Psylla, Lemon butterfly, Anarbutterfly, San Jose Scale. Woolly aphid , Apple root borer.
Plant Pathology : An Introduction : An IntrodThareschnical terms : An Introduction, Rust in India, Physioligical Specialization
Chemicals used in Disease Control : Fungicides, Types of Fungicides, Thiocarbamate Fungicides, Metallic dithiocarbamates, Other Organic Fungicides. Antibiotics, Systemic Fungicides, Organo-mercurial Fungicides, Fungicides and their name.
Plant Disease Control : Classification of Plant Disease Control Methods, General Principles of Plant Disease control, Avoidance of the pathogen, Exclusion of Inoculum, Types of seed treament, Eradication of the Pathogen. Protective Measures, Development of Resistance in Hosts. Therapy of Diseased Plants, BACTERIAL DISEASES, MYCOPLASMAL DISEASES, VIRAL DISEASES. Diseases caused by Nematodes.
Disease-details Table :
Genetics : An Introduction : Heredity, Variation, Phenocopy, Gene, Plasmid, Genome, Allele/Allelomorph, Chromosome, History, : spontaneous generations, Preformation, Theory of epigenesis, Theory of Inheritance of Acquired characters; Theory of Pangenesis, Germplasm theory, physical basis of heredity.
The Cell : History, Cell parts, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, plasmalemma, Cell wall, Protoplasm, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Chromosome, Mitochondria, Plastids, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Ribosomes, Golgibody, Lysosome, Tonoplast, Plasmadesmata, Centrosome, Genetic material, DNA & RNA, Genetic Code. 23. Cell Division : Cell division cycle, Amitosis, Endomitosis, Brachymeiosis, Mitosis, Meiosis.
Mendel’s Laws : Mendel’s life, Mendel’s Work, Reason for Mendel’s success, Mendel’s observations, Mendel’s Laws, Law of Segregation, Law of Independent Assortment, Deviations from Mendel’s law, Back cross & Test Cross
Dominance & Gene Interaction : Dominance, Penetrance, Expressivity, Pleiotropism, Lethality, Gene Interaction : Complementary genes, Epistasis, Inhibitory gene action, Duplicate genes, Polymeric gene action.
Linkage & Crossing Over : Introduction, Strength of linkage, Linkage maps or genetic map.
Sex linked, Sex influenced & Sex limited traits : Introducion, Sex linked traits, Non-disjunction of sex chromosomes, Sex-influenced traits, Sex limited traits.
Cytoplasmic or Extranuclear Inheritance : Introduction, Features of Cytoplasmic Inheritance, Practical application of cytoplasmic inheritance.
Modes of Reproduction & Pollination Control : Apomixis and its types, Modes of reproducion parthenogenesis, Vybrid, Flower, Anthesis, Mechanisms promoting self-pollination, Classification of crop species on the basis of their natural mode of pollination, Mechanism promoting cross-pollination, Self-Incompatibility, Male Sterility, Chemical hybridising Agent.
Qualitative & Quantitative Characters : Introduction, Qualitative Characters, Quantitative Characters, Pleiotropy, Penetrance & Expressivity, Gene Interaction. Polygenic inheritance, Phenotypic variance, Heritability.
Selection in Self-pollinated Crops : Progeny test, Pureline theory, Pureline Selection, Mass-Selection, pedigree method, Bulk method, Backcross method.
Selection in Cross-pollinated Crops : Hardy-Weinberg law, Inbreeding, Inbreeding Depression & Heterosis, Hybrid Vigour, its genetic basis, Hybridization, Metaxenia, Objectives of hybridization, types and procedure of hybridization, Emasculation and its techniques, Breeding method used in cross pollinated : population improvement, Mass selection progeny selection, Recurrent selection, GCA, SCA, Hybrid & Synthetic Varieties, Synthetic/Composite Varieties, Germplasm Complexes, Multiline Varieties.
Breeding for Disease & Insect Resistance : Pathogenicity, Development of diseases, Sources of disease or insect resistance, Methods of breeding. 34. Mutations in crop Improvement : Meaning, types of mutation & its Characteristics, Mutagens, Mutation breeding, y -garden.
Polypoidy : Meaning, heteroploidy, Euploidy, Aneuploidy, Features of autopolypoids, Allopolypoids, Homoeologous chromosome, Amphidiploid, Synthesis of Triticale & Raphanobrassica, Evolution of Bread wheat, Amphidiploid Brassica sp., and Nicotiana tabacum.
Objective model Questions (With Answer) :