Arun Katyayan Vol 01 Free PDF Download

Arun Katyayan Vol 01 Free PDF Download

CONTENTS

History of Agriculture : History of Agriculture and Agronomy, IARI, ICAR, IRRI CIMMYT, Agricultural Universities Agl. Research Institutes.

Cropping System and Pattern : Shifting cultivation, Crop rotation, Sustainable agriculture, Cropping system, Cropping pattern, Farming system, Mixed fanning, Sole cropping, Cropping scheme, Monoculture, Cropping Intensity, Types of cropping system, Multiple cropping, Intercropping, Mixed cropping, sequential cropping, Multistorey cropping, Terra-forming, Aeroponics.

Annidation and Allelopathy : Annidation-Spatial and temporal annidation, Allelopathy-True and functional allelopathy, Allelochemicals, Legume effect, sorghum effect, Cotton effect.

Crop Ecology : Meaning, Microclimate, harvest Index, Sink-source ratio. Ideotypes, Ideotypes for some crops, Agro-climatic Regional Planning, Agro-climatic zones, Agro-ecological zones.

Dryland Agriculture : Dry farming, Dryland farming, Rainfed farming, Problems and Prospects of dry land agriculture, Drought and agricul-tural drought, ICRISAT, ICARDA, MAI, AI, MDI, TMI, Crop adaptation for dry growing conditions, Watershed manage-ment, Water harvesting and its types, Jalshakti, Evapotrans-piration, Antitranspirants and its types, Windbreaks and shelterbelts.

Erosion and soil Conservation : Runoff and factors affecting it, Soil loss equation, Soil conservation Measures— Land capability classification, Mulching, Strip-cropping and its types, Conservation measures for Hilly slopes— Contour trenching, Bend’. terracing, Stone terracing.

Classification of Crops : Taxonomic classification, Special classification : Arable crops. Alley crops, Augmenting crops, Border crops, Brake crops. Catch crops, Cole crops, Cover crops, Complimentary crops. Supplementary crops, Exhaustive crops, Ley crops, Paira 01 Utera crops, Paired row cropping, Skip cropping, Silage crops Smother crops, Trap crops, etc.

Crop Production : Kharif and Rabi crops, Crops and its botanical names, Origin of crops, Protein contents, Area and Production, Other important facts of different crops viz. Rice, Wheat, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Pulses, Oilseeds, Sunflower, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco.

Seed Technology : Meaning, Factors affecting germination and growth, Seed Index, Real value of seed, Purity percentage, Dockage, Isola-tion distance, Types of pure seeds— Nucleus seeds, Founda-tion seed, Registered seed, Certified seed, Improved seed, Viability test, Seed dormancy and its breaking, Seed treatment, Seed plot technique of potato. National seed corporation, State seed corporation.

Weed Problems : Meaning, Criteria of weed, Classification of weed, Crop weed competition, Characteristics of weed, Multiplication and Dis-semination, Weed control, Preventive method, Curative method, Biological method, Chemical control, Classification of Herbicides, Herbicides and its other names, Selective herbicide, Contact herbicide, Active ingredient, Acid equiva-lent, Orobanche & Striga. Herbicides for weed control in different crops.

Assessment of Agronomic Interactions :

(a) Assessment of competition & yield advantage—LER, Relative crowding coefficient, Aggresivity, Competition index, Competition ratio, Competition coefficient.

(b) Assessment of Land use and Productivity in Multiple cropping— Multiple cropping index, Cropping intensity index, Intensity of cropping, Specific crop intensity index, Relative cropping intensity index, Cultivated land utilization index, Diversity index, Rotational Intensity.

Agro-forestry and Social Forestry : Agro-forestry and its meaning, Objectives of agro-forestry, Components of agro-forestry— Agri-silviculture, Sylvopastoral systems, Social forestry— meaning of its principles, Objectives and components of social forestry— Farm & Rural forestry, Urban forestry, Need for more forests.

Water Management : Irrigation, Matric potential, Capillary potential, Gravitational potential, pf‘ value, Cumec, Moisture equivalent, Permanent wilting point, wilting coefficient, Soil moisture tension, Poiseuille’s law, Darcy’s law, Measurement of soil moisture content, Tensiometer, Potential Evapo-transpiration, Lysimeter, Evaporimeter, Consumptive use of water, Water use efficiency, Irrigation efficiency, Irrigation period, Intensity of irrigation, Crop ratio, Duty of water, Delta, Weirs, Parshall Flume, Methods of irrigation, Surface and sub-surface irrigation, Sprinkler and Drip irrigation, Micro irrigation; Drainage Surface and sub-surface drainage.

Rocks and its Weathering : Igneous rocks, Sedimentary rocks, Metamorphic rocks, Rock minerals, Quartz, Feldspars, Mica, Olivine, Tourmaline, Sources of Plant nutrients, Primary and secondary minerals, Weathering of rocks- Physical, Chemical and Biological weathering, Development of mineral profile.

Soil Formation : Factors of soil formation, Parent materials, Topography, Climate, Organism, Time, Soil forming processes- Eluviation, illuviation, Gypsification, Podzolisation, Laterisation, Gleization, Solonization, Pedoturbation.

Soil and its Physical Properties : Soil and its concept, Pedology and Edaphology, Regolith, Regosol, Organic & mineral soil, Soil profile, Physical properties of soil- Soil texture; Sand, Silt and Clay, Textural classes, Soil structure and its types, Factors affecting soil structure, Particle and Bulk density, Pore space/solid space,Soil consistence, Soil colour and soil air, Soil temp, Soil water- Hygroscopic water, Capillary water, Gravitational water, Available water, Field capacity, Permanent wilting percentage, Hygroscopic coefficient, Moisture equivalent, Different layers of soil water.

Soil colloids and silicate clay minerals : Meaning, Clay minerals, Composition of clay, Micelles, Acid nature of clay, Sesquioxide clays, Silica sesquioxide ratio, Silicate clay minerals and its classification- 1:1 type, 2:1 type and 2:2 type, Sources of negative charge on silicate clays, Isomorphic substitution and exposed crystal edges.

Soil Taxonomy and Soils of India : Modern classification, Cat clays, Catena, Caliche, Soils of India- Alluvial soils, Black soils, Red soils, Laterite soils, Desert soil.

Soil Organic Matter : Nature of soil organic matter, Humic and non-humic substances, Humus and its characteristics, Factors affecting decomposition, C : N ratio and its significance, Muck and Peat soils, Role of organic matter, Mineralisation and immobilisation, Mineralisation of organic nitrogen-Aminization, Ammonification, Nitrification, Nitrogen loss : Volatilisation, Microbial denitrification.

Manures, Fertilizers and Biofertilizers : Manures-meaning and its advantages, FYM, Compost, Night soil, Sewage and sludge, Sheep and goat manure, Poultry manure, Green manure, Green leaf manuring, Oilcakes, Fertilizers-Meaning and its classification, Fertilizer grade and ratio, Materials used in fertilizer, Precautions in mixing fertilizers, Acidity and basicity of fertilizer- Equivalent acidity and basicity, Nitrogenous fertilizers and its characteristics, Phosphatic fertilizers and Potassic fertilizers, Micronutrient fertilizers, Nitrification inhibitors and slow release fertizers. Biofertilizers and its classification, Biological nitrogen, fixation, Symbiotic and non-symbiotic N-fixation.

Soil fertility and Productivity : Available nutrient analysis of soil and its process, Crop logging, Soil fertility and productivity, Some important points.

Mineral Nutrition : Meaning, Criteria of essentiality, Form of elements absorbed by plants, Elements and its major role, Mobility of nutrients, Classification of essential nutrients— major and micronutrients, Ultra micronutrients, Beneficial nutrients, Hidden Hunger, Role of essential plant nutrients, Deficiency symptoms, Toxicity symptoms.

Saline, Alkali and Acid Soils : Saline soils and its characteristics, ESP, Reclamation of saline soils, Sodic soils and its characteristics, Formation and recla-mation of sodic soils, Saline-alkali soils and its characteristics, Difference between saline and alkaline soils, Reclamation of usar soils, Acid soils and its genesis, Reclamation of usar soils, Acids soils and its genesis, Characteristics and management of acid soils. SAR.

Extension Education : Introduction, Agl. Extension Education— Objectives and principles, Basic philosophy of extension, Learning and Principles, Basic philosophy of extension and communication— Teaching steps, Adoption Process, Communication, Classification of Extension teaching methods, Demonstration—Method demonstration, Result demonstration and National demonstration, Training & Visit System, Lab to Land Programme, Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Technology transfer,Etawah Pilot Project, Community Development Programme, National Extension Service, Panchayati Raj, IRDP, Operation Flood, TRYSEM, Young Farmer’s Association, Swama Jayanthi Grama Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), NREGA, Extension activities, Rural welfare activities and other Programmes in India.

Agricultural Economics : Introduction, Micro and Macro-Economics, Cooperatives in India, RBI & SBI, Cooperative Banking Structure, Land Development Bank (LDB), Crop Loan Scheme, Regional Rural Banks (RRBs), Marketing Services, Market Agencies or Functionaries, Characteristics of Indian Agriculture, Problems in Indian Agriculture, Economic Holding, Marginal and Small Farmer Agriculture Price, Price Elasticity Cost, Opportunity Cost, Cost Elements, Cost Curves, Assets, Liabilities, Efficiency Measures, Monotonic and Non-monotonic relationships, AGMARK.

Farm Management : Meaning, Objects of farm management, Production Decisions, Production Functions, Cobb-Douglas Production Function, Types of Production functions, Forms of Factor- Factor relationship, The Law of Returns or Variable proportions, Elasticity of Production, Cost Principle, Law of Equi-marginal return or Principle of opportunity cost, Factor-Factor relationship, Product- Product relationship, Principle of comparative advantage, Decision under risk & Uncertainty, National Agriculture Insurance Scheme, Types & Systems of Farming, Farm Planning and Budgeting.

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